The effect of weight loss due to bariatric surgery on the function of the body’s immune system

تاثیر کاهش وزن ناشی از جراحی چاقی بر عملکرد سیستم ایمنی بدن

The increasing prevalence of the obesity epidemic worldwide is a major threat to global health in terms of morbidity and mortality. Obesity is associated with a variety of health problems, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, reproductive disorders, osteoarthritis, gallstones, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, respiratory disease, and, according to studies, some types of cancer. . The problem of obesity and smoking can be followed for public health as the cause of cancer. Increased BMI has been shown to increase the risk of some types of cancer. , such as esophageal adenocarcinoma, melanoma, leukemia, multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and colon cancer. , thyroid, endometrium, kidney, gall bladder, rectum, etc. including breast and pancreatic cancers.
Why are obese people prone to cancer? Biological mechanisms seem to link obesity to many types of cancer. are several factors and involve a network of metabolic factors and the immune system. Multiple mechanisms by which obesity stimulates or promotes tumorigenesis. , including insulin resistance and resulting chronic hyperinsulinemia, increased availability of steroid hormones, high consumption of foods rich in fat, and lack of physical activity.

Bariatric and metabolic surgery in adolescents and teenagers

جراحی چاقی و متابولیک در نوجوانان و teenager ها


Eighty to 90% of adolescents benefit from lasting weight loss following bariatric surgery and most experience the remission of obesity-related complications such as elevated blood pressure, high cholesterol, type 2 diabetes and musculoskeletal pain, among others, according to researchers from Children’s Hospital Colorado (Children’s Colorado).

The outcomes from their study, ‘Influence of Weight Loss on Obesity‐Associated Complications After Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery in Adolescents’, published in Obesity, show that with the exception of cholesterol and triglyceride levels, remission of obesity-related complications was not dependent on major sustained weight loss. Rather, a majority of adolescents benefited from remission of obesity-related complications, an observation that was independent of whether or not they lost a significant amount of weight.

“We view the findings of this study to be very encouraging, because the amount of weight loss does not seem to impede the sustained remission of many obesity-related complications, the study supports the myriad benefits of bariatric surgery for severely obese teens, said Dr Sarkis Christopher Derderian, , pediatric surgery fellow at Children’s Colorado. “These patients are often able to stop taking medications for Type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure following surgery. In doing so, not only does their quality of life dramatically improve, but no longer incurring the cost of managing such complications can offset the cost of surgery over time.”

For the study, Derderian and colleagues compared rates of remission of obesity-associated complications among two groups of patients: those who experienced less than 20% total body weight loss five years after surgery and those who experienced 20% or greater total body weight loss over the same time period. All 192 study participants were part of a multi-centre study led by researchers at Children’s Colorado known as the Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (Teen-LABS).

Specifically, researchers found that 40.6% of study participants exhibited <20% total body weight loss, while 59.4% exhibited >20% total body weight loss at five years. While the latter group saw greater improvement in their cholesterol levels, the remission of other complications appeared to be independent of whether or not the participants achieved major sustained weight loss.

“Collectively, our data strongly support the metabolic benefits of metabolic and bariatric surgery. Although only 60% of adolescents are expected to lose equal to or greater than 20% of their total body weight, they should be informed that remission rates for several lifelong debilitating complications of obesity are high after MBS, independently of whether this weight‐loss goal is achieved,” the authors concluded. “The importance of long‐term follow‐up for these adolescents to determine the durable effect of metabolic and bariatric surgery on obesity‐associated complications is critical, particularly regarding the relationship to change in weight over time.

“In looking at the relationship between the extent of weight loss and health benefits obtained, it is clear that patients’ health improves regardless of whether or not they sustain high levels of weight loss long-term following surgery,” said Dr Thomas H Inge, Teen-LABS principal investigator, and director of pediatric surgery and the bariatric center at Children’s Colorado. “While this study is incredibly promising, additional research is needed to determine if the same benefits are seen in patients who only sustain weight loss of five to 10% over time. Nevertheless, this study supports the recognition of bariatric surgery as the most effective intervention to promote significant and durable weight loss in adolescents with severe obesity.”

Obesity can increase the risk of pregnancy disorders in women

چاقی می تواند خطر اختلالات بارداری زنان را افزایش دهد

A study conducted by researchers at the University of Oxford suggests a causal link between obesity and a range of women’s reproductive diseases, but the extent of this link varies between conditions. Although fertility disorders are common conditions that affect the health and well-being of many people, the role of obesity in developing women’s fertility conditions has not been studied. The article, “Obesity and risk of female reproductive conditions: a Mendelian randomization study,” is published in PLoS Medicine.

Obesity is associated with increased risk of female reproductive conditions. Our work shows that the estimated genetic and observational effects of obesity on different reproductive conditions are heterogeneous and partially mediated by hormones. We also see that reproductive disorders cluster with the common genetic effect of obesity. Credit: Samvida S. Venkatesh, CC BY 4.0 (

To examine the causal relationship between obesity, metabolic hormones, and female reproductive disorders, researchers conducted a Mendelian randomized study of 257,193 women of European ancestry aged 40 to 69 years. They accessed records from the UK Biobank, a large-scale biomedical database containing medical, environmental and genetic information on participants.

The researchers then developed a statistical model to estimate the relationship between body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio with the risk of many reproductive diseases in women, including endometriosis, heavy menstrual bleeding, preeclampsia, and infertility.
Researchers have found an observational link between obesity and a range of female reproductive disorders, including uterine fibroids, polycystic ovary syndrome, heavy menstrual bleeding, and preeclampsia. They also found that some inherited genetic variations associated with obesity are also associated with reproductive disorders in women, but the strength of this association varies by type of obesity and reproductive conditions.

This study had several limitations, such as the low prevalence of female reproductive disorders among participants, and the lack of data on body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio before disease onset.
"We provide genetic evidence that general obesity and central obesity play an etiological role in a wide range of female reproductive conditions, but the magnitude of this association varies considerably between conditions," the authors wrote. Our results indicate the need to investigate the mechanisms. Mediation of the relationship between the cause of overweight and obesity on women's health to identify the goals of disease prevention and treatment.

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